IP rating introduction

IP rating introduction

What does IP mean?
 IP is the abbreviation of International Protection, also known as "Ingress Protection Rating", followed by the two numbers it is the protection established level, according to the international protection level certification IEC 60529, which represents "Solid particle protection " and "Liquid ingress protection".

About the two digits after the IP, the first represent "Solid particle protection ", commonly known as "dust protection rating", and the second is "Liquid ingress protection", that is "waterproof rating".

The following describes the difference about the digits:
The first digit is "Solid particle protection", which is used to indicate the ability of the product shell to protect internal components (such as electronic and mechanical parts) and prevent external objects from entering, unit number: 0-6, detailed description the following table:

IP rating
Effective against
Description
IP0X
-
 No protection against contact and ingress of objects
IP1X
>50mm
 Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part
IP2X
>12.5mm
 Fingers or similar objects
IP3X
>2.5mm
 Tools, thick wires, etc.
IP4X
>1mm
 Most wires, slender screws, large ants etc.
IP5X
Dust protected
 Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.
IP6X
Dust-tight
 No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust-tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on airflow.


The second digit after the IP is "Liquid ingress protection", which indicates the ability of the device casing to resist liquid penetration, unit number: 0-9, detailed description is as follows:

IP rating
Protection against
Effective against
Details
IPx0
None
 -
 -
IPx1
Dripping water
 Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.
 Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 1 mm (0.039 in) rainfall per minute
IPx2
Dripping water when tilted at 15°
Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.
 Test duration: 2.5 minutes for every direction of tilt (10 minutes total)
Water equivalent to 3 mm (0.12 in) rainfall per minute
IPx3
Spraying water
 Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield.
 Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.
 For a spray nozzle:
Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 5 minutes[5] Water volume: 10 liters per minute (0.037 impgal/s) Pressure: 50–150 kPa (7.3–21.8 psi)

 For an oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes Water volume: 0.07 liters per minute (0.00026 impgal/s) per hole
IPx4
Splashing of water
Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either:
a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with no shield. Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes. b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.
 Oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes, or spray nozzle (same as IPX3 spray nozzle with the shield removed)
IPx5
Water jets
 Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm (0.25 in)) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

 Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes

 Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute Pressure: 30 kPa (4.4 psi) at distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)
IPx6
Powerful water jets
Water projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm (0.49 in)) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

 Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes

 Water volume: 100 liters per minute (0.37 impgal/s) Pressure: 100 kPa (15 psi) at distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)
IPx7
Immersion, up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) depth
 Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) of submersion).

 Test duration: 30 minutes.

 Tested with the lowest point of the enclosure 1,000 mm (39 in) below the surface of the water, or the highest point 150 mm (5.9 in) below the surface, whichever is deeper.
IPx8
Immersion, 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) or more depth
 The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects. The test depth and duration is expected to be greater than the requirements for IPx7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.

 Test duration: agreement with manufacturer

 Depth specified by the manufacturer, generally up to 3 meters (9.8 ft)
IPx9
Powerful high-temperature water jets

 Protected against close-range high pressure, high-temperature spray downs.

 Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted in the intended position when being used, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at a distance of 0.15–0.2 meters (5.9 in–7.9 in).

 Test duration: Fixture: 30 sec. in each of 4 angles (2 min. total), Freehand: 1 min/m2, 3 min. minimum

 Water volume: 14–16 liters per minute (0.051–0.059 impgal/s) Pressure: 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) at distance of 0.10–0.15 meters (3.9 in–5.9 in) Water temperature: 80 °C (176 °F)

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